created by: GERM!

FALL SEMESTER 2010

THE OFFICIAL CINEMA FINAL EXAM ANSWERS! GOOD LUCK!

 I just wanna say thanks to all the people who showed up to the cinema final exam thing, you guys made this happen. Also a big thanks to everyone who used the website, we had a great semester :]

 -GERM!

When did strong reactions against the stereotyping of African Americans in movies begin?

-1920s

What was the ratio of unused to used footage in Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979)?

-100 to 1

In reference to time, what does an ellipsis generally signify in a movie?

-omission

While short-lived, the Japanese New Wave influenced the style and content of what other movement?

-New American Cinema

On May 4, 1880, Eadweard Muybridge used a magic lantern and a zoopraxiscope to give a public demonstration of photographic images set in motion, documenting what action?

-a horse running

What are four suggested areas to consider when analyzing any actor’s performance?

-appropriateness, emotionality, expressive coherence, unity

What expressive use of patterns using a dynamic form of editing did Sergei Eisenstein pioneer, as demonstrated in the “Odessa Steps” sequence of Battleship Potemkin (1925)?

-montage

What was the greatest potential threat to profits during Hollywood’s golden age?

-censorship

What two types of editing advantages did D. W. Griffith create in Birth of a Nation (1915) by rarely carrying over the action from shot to shot, but instead creating a series of details from different viewpoints?

-a sense of depth in the narrative, and the ability to guide the viewer’s reactions

By teaching you how to look at movies in a critically aware way, film history provides you with the _________ and________  to understand and evaluate both yesterday’s and today’s movies.

-perspective; context

What quality of a film is the pace at which it moves forward by varying the duration of the shots in relationship to one another?

-rhythm

What kind of editing refers to the editing of two or more actions taking place at the same time but creating a single scene rather than two distinct actions?

-intercutting

What Russian was the first theorist and filmmaker of the cinema of propaganda in documentary form?

-Dziga Vertov

In the first two decades of movies, the two pioneering geniuses were D. W. Griffith and ___________.

-Sergei Eisenstein

Film production is complicated by the standard, cost-effective practice of what?

-shooting out of chronological order

Actors playing _________ are characters who become principal agents in moving the plot forward.

-major roles

Edward Porter and Thomas Edison’s The Great Train Robbery (1903) was the first movie using ___________, making it possible to depict parallel actions occurring simultaneously.

-crosscutting

In Napoleon (1927) Abel Gance introduced which multiscreen technique used in the epic pillow fight scene?

-Polyvision

The perceptual qualities of sound are made up of which of the following sets of characteristics?

-pitch, loudness, quality

What is the primary difference between stage acting and screen acting?

-the ability to act intimately and come very close to the intended audience

Historians who use an aesthetic approach are primarily interested in movies that not only are works of art but also are widely acknowledged as what?

-masterpieces

What are the shots that the director previews every day after shooting called?

-dailies

What kind of cut joins one person’s point of view looking offscreen with another’s that is the object of that gaze?

-eyeline match cut

In terms of cinematic duration, the ___________ is an arc that measures information in a shot; at the curve’s peak, the viewer has absorbed the information from a shot and is ready to move on to the next shot.

-content curve

What is an answer print?

-the first combined print of a film

Orson Welles’s complex sound design for Citizen Kane (1941) is a kind of ________ that functions much like the photography in the film.

-deep-focus sound

Free Cinema films were expressions of the people who made them and were a manifestation of the move in Europe toward a new cinema of __________.

-social realism

Which of the following is not a traditional approach used to study film history?

-marketing

Sound can define sections of the screen, which does what?

-guides our attention and influences our interpretation

Pitch is defined by the frequency (or speed) by which it is produced and is measured using what time frame?

-per second

Over what aspect of filmmaking do directors have the least precise control?

-acting

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving Thalberg

What kind of transitional device, often including a change of place or time, slides across the screen and replaces the original shot?

-wipe

During the 1930s under the producer-unit system, what was MGM’s annual output of films?

-50

What is the process of combining different sound recordings, or tracks, onto one composite sound track synchronous with the picture called?

-mixing

A master shot is sometimes called by what other name?

-establishing shot

Which film professionals tend to have the least defined job descriptions?

-producers

At what speed, in frames per second (fps), is a strip of exposed frames projected?

-16 fps for silent, 24 fps for sound

The two explicit values of every shot are _________ and ___________.

-what is in the shot; its situation in relation to other shots

In 2006, how many females were the top business or creative executive at the seven major studios?

-5

The process of editing both pictures and sound usually lasts ______ than the shooting itself. Carl Theodor Dreyer’s formalist masterpiece The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928) is distinguished from most French avant-garde films by__________.

-narrative

Laurence Olivier once said that acting is “______________.”

-the art of persuasion

If actors perform skillfully, and we believe and accept their characters within the context of the story, what should we call such portrayals?

-naturalistic

Intercutting refers to the editing of two or more simultaneous actions to create what kind of action?

-single

The individual space that each type of sound occupies is called a ________.

-track

Billy Wilder’s Sunset Boulevard (1950) features Gloria Swanson, who was actually one of the greatest stars of the silent era and is known for saying what famous line?

-“I am big, it’s the movies that got small.”

What Taiwanese director is credited with directing Sense and Sensibility (1995), The Ice Storm (1997), Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), and Brokeback Mountain (2005)?

-Ang Lee

The extreme Japanese film movement called Nubero Bagu spanned which decades?

-1950s–1970s

Actors must understand the filmmaking process because every aspect of it can affect performance and the actors’ contribution to the creation of _______ in a film.

-meaning

Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds (1963) is one of the few movies that does not have this particular characteristic: __________.

-background music

Today’s movies run between two and three hours and are composed of about how many shots?

-2,000 to 3,000

What is the most familiar kind of movie sound?

-diegetic, onscreen sound synchronous with the image

One of the most important and influential aspects of Jean-Luc Godard’s films is ___________, which is central to the telling of his narratives.

-editing

What was a soundproof enclosure designed to keep the camera’s sound off of the microphone called?

-blimp

Actors shape the understanding of a role by working closely with whom?

-the director

Black-and-white film remained the industry standard until early in what decade?

-1950s

The power of some______ to draw in an audience is frequently more important to a movie’s financial success than any other factor.

-actors

From where does external sound originate?

-from a source within the world of the film that can be heard by the characters

What is the exposure window in a movie camera called?

-aperture

The master shot is also sometimes used as a cover shot to what ends?

-to avoid reshooting

During preproduction, what do sound designers encourage directors and other collaborators to do during reproduction?

-consider the significance of what the characters hear

The classes of Hollywood golden age actors are which of the following?

-supporting players, stock players, featured players, movie stars

From where does nondiegetic sound originate?

-from a source outside the world of the film

The editing of most contemporary narrative movies is made to be as _________ as possible.

-inconspicuous

Along with Vittorio De Sica’s Shoeshine (1946), what is considered the other neorealist masterpiece film?

-The Bicycle Thieves (1948)

Over what aspect of filmmaking do directors have the least precise control?

-Acting

Moviemaking is, above all, ______________ enterprise.

-a moneymaking

What kind of cut often matches basic shapes (circles, squares, triangles) and provides a strong sense of design and order?

-graphic match cut

In what decade did Jack Foley invent “Foley sounds”?

-1930s

The editing of most contemporary narrative movies is made to be as _________ as possible.

-Inconspicuous

With careful interplay between sound and silence, a filmmaker can produce a new _________ for the film.

-Rhythm

What are the four general categories of film sound?

-vocal, environmental, music, silence

You can most effectively analyze an editor’s contributions to a film by examining individual scenes and trying to understand how their parts ____________.

-fit together

The transition to sound started with The Jazz Singer (1927) in what year?

-1927

In Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund’s City of God (2002), the “Chasing the Chicken” scene is composed of which two parts?

-the preparation and the chase

German expressionism gave birth to what film genre?

-horror films

What percentage of Hollywood films is digitally edited?

-100

Dziga Vertov is best known today for what 1929 film?

-The Man with the Movie Camera (1929)

How much did Steven Spielberg and Tom Cruise each make (estimated) for Minority Report (2002)?

-55 million

The process of editing both pictures and sound usually lasts ______ than the shooting itself.

-Longer

The classical Hollywood style is fundamentally built on what principle?

-Invisibility

A freeze-frame is a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing of the same frame, so that the image can be seen without movement for ____________.

-whatever length of time the filmmaker wants

Forty-six years after the invention of motion pictures, what film revolutionized the medium?

-Citizen Kane (1941)

Method acting requires actors to use a naturalistic style and to recall their own what?

-emotional experiences

The art of the movies has been changed by developments in technology and cinematic conventions, and also by what?

-changes in the production process

Stephen Spielberg has said that since the 1970s, breakthroughs in ________ have been the movie industry’s most important and creative innovations.

-Sound

Movies were invented in the first part of which decade?

-1890s

Stock players, who formed the largest talent pool, received between about how much money per week?

-$50–$350

Who began to mass-produce a paper film coated with a gelatin emulsion in 1889?

-George Eastman

In addition to establishing the shot as the basic structural unit of a movie, Edwin S. Porter also pioneered what?

-continuity editing

Who guides the entire process of making a movie from its initial planning to its release?

-the producer

What is the hardest medium to edit?

-Video

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving Thalberg

Postproduction consists of what three phases?

-editing, the final print, marketing

On May 4, 1880, Eadweard Muybridge used a magic lantern and a zoopraxiscope to give a public demonstration of photographic images set in motion, documenting what action?

-a horse running

Screwball comedies became popular during the Great Depression in the 1930s for what reason?

-They offered an escape from reality.

With what unit of measurement is a film’s format measured?

-Millimeters

Lev Kuleshov discovered that two shots __________ any actual relationship to one another if the first shot is an action followed by another shot that is a reaction.

-need not have

By teaching you how to look at movies in a critically aware way, film history provides you with the _________ and________  to understand and evaluate both yesterday’s and today’s movies.

-perspective; context

Experienced screen actors know that the essential relationship is between them and whom?

-the lens

How much larger is the IMAX format than a conventional 35mm frame?

-10

What Konstantin Stanislavsky was to naturalistic acting, German playwright Bertolt Brecht was to _________ performance.

-Nonnaturalistic

What Russian was the first theorist and filmmaker of the cinema of propaganda in documentary form?

-Dziga Vertov

Laurence Olivier once said that acting is “______________.”

-the art of persuasion

Of what four phases does sound production consist?

-design, recording, editing, mixing

For most narrative films, sound provides clues that help us do what?

-form expectations

As what is a group of actors working together selflessly to serve the narrative and create verisimilitude and mise-en-scène known?

-an ensemble

Who funds the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, best known for the presentation of the Oscars?

-the industry

During the 1930s and 1940s, the independent system of production __________ the studio system.

-coexisted with

What is the average total cost of a feature film today?

-100 million dollars

What are the shots that the director previews every day after shooting called?

-Dailies

Which of the following best characterizes the invisibility principle?

-a seamless form and a standardized studio production

Sound recorded with the Dolby system requires a theater equipped with what?

-Dolby playback system

The reality of casting is that it depends on what?

-Budget

Several hundred people now appear in a feature film’s credits for what reason?

-union requirements and collective bargaining

What are the three stages of bringing a film to the screen?

-shooting, processing, projecting

Joan Crawford said that a movie actor paints with the ______ kind of brush.

-Tiniest

How did Walt Disney Studios first release its movies?

-through Buena Vista Productions

Actors must understand the filmmaking process because every aspect of it can affect performance and the actors’ contribution to the creation of _______ in a film.

-Meaning

Jack Lemmon, Harvey Keitel, and John Malkovich believe a character is built “________.”

-brick by brick

During the 1930s under the producer-unit system, what was MGM’s annual output of films?

-50

What was the first significant documentary film?

-Nanook of the North (1922)

For how many categories does the Academy award “best in” Oscars

-24

When did the first African American movie stars appear?

-1950s

The French avant-garde movement included artists and intellectuals who took their inspiration from previous French filmmakers as well as __________.

-Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud

Director Sidney Lumet said that “the ________ of acting is one in which the actor’s thoughts and feelings are instantly communicated to the audience.”

-Talent

In one sense, movies are simply a natural progression in the history of what?

-Photography

Instead of writing comprehensive film history books, most authors focus their energies on what?

-specific moments, movements, phenomena

What is the standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture?

-double-system recording

Traditionally, because audiences have shown little interest in films about women older than _____, the American film industry has produced very few of them.

-forty-five

In digital filmmaking, the sound track basically consists of a _________ placed somewhere on the digital recording medium.

-digital code

What is the basic building block of editing?

-shot

In addition to establishing the shot as the basic structural unit of a movie, Edwin S. Porter also pioneered what?

-continuity editing

The Soviet-montage movement is one of the two high points of silent film experimentation along with what other movement?

-German expressionism

For most narrative films, sound provides clues that help us do what?

-form expectations

Whose work is it to determine and realize on the screen an artistic vision of the screenplay?

-the director

The French National Theatre is also known as the ________.

-Comédie-Française

Film production is complicated by the standard, cost-effective practice of what?

-shooting out of chronological order

On May 4, 1880, Eadweard Muybridge used a magic lantern and a zoopraxiscope to give a public demonstration of photographic images set in motion, documenting what action?

-a horse running

Sound design combines the crafts of editing and mixing, involving matters both _________________.

-theoretical and practical

Because an actor’s performance is fragmented, who has considerable power in shaping it?

-the editor

What do we call casting particular types of roles because of an actor’s looks or type?

-type casting

The star system dominated the movie industry until the studio system did what?

-collapsed

Loudness, or the amplitude of a sound, is measured by the degree of motion within what?

-a sound wave

How do you determine the number of people required on a particular shot?

-by the needs of the shot

What is Chinese filmmaker Chen Kaige’s most famous film (in the West)?

-Farewell My Concubine (1993)

Synchronized pictures/sound work prints of a day’s shooting are called the ________ .

-dailies

Sound recorded with the Dolby system requires a theater equipped with what?

-Dolby playback system

The technique for the actual joining together of two shots is often called _______ or ______.

-cutting; splicing

What is the term for a director that inspires such confidence that he or she can actively shape an actor’s performance?

-actors’ director

When was photography first developed?

-1800s–1840s

Actors shape the understanding of a role by working closely with whom?

-the director

Throughout their work, film editors must collaborate with the director and be resilient enough to withstand which typical scenario?

-producer’s interference

What kind of editing is the cutting together of two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously?

-parallel editing

A freeze-frame is a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing of the same frame, so that the image can be seen without movement for ____________.

-whatever length of time the filmmaker wants

What were the three most successful silent film types?

-epics, melodramas, comedies

What was the most notable change in the New American Cinema?

-predominance of sex and violence

The __________ of shots within a scene can cause us to have a fairly complex sense of the overall space, even if no shot discloses more than a fraction of that space to us at a time.

-juxtaposition

Lev Kuleshov discovered that two shots __________ any actual relationship to one another if the first shot is an action followed by another shot that is a reaction.

-need not have

Who said, “If you can think it, you can make the audience know it. . . . On stage it’s mannerisms.  On the screen, your range is shown in your eyes”?

-Frank Capra

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin

While short-lived, the Japanese New Wave influenced the style and content of what other movement?

-New American Cinema

Bette Davis earned about _________dollars during her career; to date Nicole Kidman has earned about__________ dollars.

-6 million; 230 million

Who began to mass-produce a paper film coated with a gelatin emulsion in 1889?

-George Eastman

What is the most common manipulation of time through editing?

-ellipsis

In the United States, method acting was taught first at the Group Theatre, and then where?

-the Actors Studio

What kind of cut shows us the continuation of a character’s or object’s motion through space without actually showing us the entire action?

-match-on-action

________can mean extemporizing—that is, delivering lines based only loosely on the written script or without the preparation that comes with studying a script before rehearsing it.

-Improvisation

What expressive use of patterns using a dynamic form of editing did Sergei Eisenstein pioneer, as demonstrated in the “Odessa Steps” sequence of Battleship Potemkin (1925)?

-montage

As what is the professional association for casting directors known?

-Casting Society of America (CSA)

What are the names of the two  actors unions?

-Screen Actors Guild, American Federation of Television and Radio Artists

What was a soundproof enclosure designed to keep the camera’s sound off of the microphone called?

-blimp

For years, improvisation has played a(n) _________role in actors’ training, even though it is anathema to the preprogrammed studio system.

-major

In 2006, how many females were the top business or creative executive at the seven major studios?

-5

What are the qualities of simultaneous sound?

-diegetic and onscreen

How much larger is the IMAX format than a conventional 35mm frame?

-10

One definition of great acting is that it should look ___________.

-effortless

Intercutting refers to the editing of two or more simultaneous actions to create what kind of action?

-single

Who created the first tangible drawings of a camera?

-Leonardo da Vinci

Walter Murch’s sound design for the “Helicopter Attack Scene” in Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) contains a mix of over how many individual sound tracks?

-140

What is the recording of a sound not made during synchronous shooting of the picture called?

-wild recording

In what year was the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) established?

-1933

From where does diegetic sound originate?

-from a source within the world of the film

Experienced screen actors know that the essential relationship is between them and whom?

-the lens

For how many categories does the Academy award “best in” Oscars?

-24

When did the Hollywood studio system begin to decline?

-early 1950s

Unlike film, video images consists of pixels, which is short for what technical term?

-picture elements

The ideal result of sound mixing achieves a sound that is both _________ and ________.

-clean; clear

Which film professionals tend to have the least defined job descriptions?

-producers

What transitional device establishes a thematic connection between in the parts of John Ford’s My Darling Clementine (1946)?

-dissolve

What is the most familiar kind of movie sound?

-diegetic, onscreen sound synchronous with the image

What are the four traditional approaches to studying film history?

-aesthetic, technological, economic, social

You can most effectively analyze an editor’s contributions to a film by examining individual scenes and trying to understand how their parts ____________.

-fit together

How much did Steven Spielberg and Tom Cruise each make (estimated) for Minority Report (2002)?

-55 million

Who is credited with launching the neorealism movement?

-Cesare Zavattini

Above-the-line costs consist of what items?

-preproduction, producer, director, cast, screenwriter, literary property

One of the most important and influential aspects of Jean-Luc Godard’s films is ___________, which is central to the telling of his narratives.

-editing

In Napoleon (1927) Abel Gance introduced which multiscreen technique used in the epic pillow fight scene?

-Polyvision

In 1909 the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC), controlled by ________, sought to control the movie industry and eliminate competition through patents and licensing fees.

-Thomas Edison

During preproduction, what do sound designers encourage directors and other collaborators to do during reproduction?

-consider the significance of what the characters hear

Georges Méliès is credited with inventing what movie procedure?

-editing

The seven-year option contract essentially turned actors into____________.

-chattel

In one sense, movies are simply a natural progression in the history of what?

-photography

Which type of cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action?

-jump cut

Today’s movies run between two and three hours and are composed of about how many shots?

-2,000 to 3,000

What are the four general categories of film sound?

-vocal, environmental, music, silence

Digital technology creates images through what process?

-processing numbered binary pixels

In what year did the first kinetoscope parlor open in New York City?

-1894

Who invented the art of screen acting?

-Lillian Gish

What kind of editing is the editing of subjective shots that show a scene exactly the way the character sees it?

-point-of-view editing

Historians who use an aesthetic approach are primarily interested in movies that not only are works of art but also are widely acknowledged as what?

-masterpieces

The art of movies is _________ its business, methods, filmmaking technologies, and production systems.

-inseparable from

What best defines resolution in regard to movie film stock, processing, and lenses?

-the ability to provide fine detail

The master shot is also sometimes used as a cover shot to what ends?

-to avoid reshooting

The motion picture is a major part of the _________ economy.

-global

Postproduction consists of what three phases?

-editing, the final print, marketing

In what year did Walt Disney make his first cartoon movie?

-1922

Orson Welles’s complex sound design for Citizen Kane (1941) is a kind of ________ that functions much like the photography in the film.

-deep-focus sound

On May 4, 1880, Eadweard Muybridge used a magic lantern and a zoopraxiscope to give a public demonstration of photographic images set in motion, documenting what action?

-a horse running

Movies involve a constant tug of war between artistic vision and what?

-profitability

In Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund’s City of God (2002), the “Chasing the Chicken” scene is composed of which two parts?

-the preparation and the chase

What is the process of combining different sound recordings, or tracks, onto one composite sound track synchronous with the picture called?

-mixing

Several hundred people now appear in a feature film’s credits for what reason?

-union requirements and collective bargaining

Below-the-line costs consist of what items?

-production, postproduction, crew:

What do filmmakers call the interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that shows images from the plot’s future?

-flash forward

When did the Hollywood studio system begin to decline?

-early 1950s

Experienced screen actors know that the essential relationship is between them and whom?

-the lens

Free Cinema films were expressions of the people who made them and were a manifestation of the move in Europe toward a new cinema of __________.

-social realism

In John Ford’s The Searchers (1956), the master shot establishes which two motifs?

-the vastness of the desert and the intimacy of the pioneer home

What was the first significant documentary film?

-Nanook of the North (1922)

The golden age of Hollywood was roughly between which two decades?

-1930s, 1950s

What is the exposure window in a movie camera called?

-aperture

The ideal result of sound mixing achieves a sound that is both _________ and ________.

-clean; clear

During the 1930s under the producer-unit system, what was MGM’s annual output of films?

-50

In Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), what object is used in a graphic match cut to a spaceship?

-a bone

The reality of casting is that it depends on what?

-budget

Who was the top actress during the studio era?

-Bette Davis

What kind of editing refers to the editing of two or more actions taking place at the same time but creating a single scene rather than two distinct actions?

-intercutting

What type of sound is the only one typically recorded during production?

-dialogue

For years, improvisation has played a(n) _________role in actors’ training, even though it is anathema to the preprogrammed studio system.

-major

What is the most familiar kind of movie sound?

-diegetic, onscreen sound synchronous with the image

The early independent production system was also known as what?

-package-unit system

Forty-six years after the invention of motion pictures, what film revolutionized the medium?

-Citizen Kane (1941)

What was a soundproof enclosure designed to keep the camera’s sound off of the microphone called?

-blimp

What was the greatest potential threat to profits during Hollywood’s golden age?

-censorship

What is the literal translation of the French word montage in English?

-editing

Pitch is defined by the frequency (or speed) by which it is produced and is measured using what time frame?

-per second

Approximately how many movies did Hollywood produce between 1927 and 1941?

-10,000

In what decade did Jack Foley invent “Foley sounds”?

-1930s

In the opening sequence of Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979), the sound design reflects Captain Benjamin L. Willard’s (Martin Sheen) what?

-state of mind

Who created the first tangible drawings of a camera?

-Leonardo da Vinci

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving Thalberg:

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin:

How many setups a day do most directors try to shoot?

-15–20

In the United States, method acting was taught first at the Group Theatre, and then where?

-the Actors Studio

What did the designation as an “A” picture mean?

-the top of a double bill

What was the first movie studio called?

-Black Maria

What is the literal translation of the French word montage in English?

-editing

In Lawrence of Arabia (1962), director David Lean created what legendary match cut?

-a cut from a match flame to the sun

Sound design combines the crafts of editing and mixing, involving matters both _________________.

-theoretical and practical

Method acting requires actors to use a naturalistic style and to recall their own what?

-emotional experiences

Orson Welles’s complex sound design for Citizen Kane (1941) is a kind of ________ that functions much like the photography in the film.

-deep-focus sound

Each of the characters in Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane (1941) has a distinctive speaking voice that is a major part of his or her _________.

-characterization

Billy Wilder’s Sunset Boulevard (1950) features Gloria Swanson, who was actually one of the greatest stars of the silent era and is known for saying what famous line?

-“I am big, it’s the movies that got small.”

Throughout their work, film editors must collaborate with the director and be resilient enough to withstand which typical scenario?

-producer’s interference

Which characteristics best describe fidelity in terms of sound?

-its faithfulness or unfaithfulness to its source

Historians who use an aesthetic approach are primarily interested in movies that not only are works of art but also are widely acknowledged as what?

-masterpieces

What do we call the process by which the editor combines and coordinates individual shots into a cinematic whole?

-editing

In filmmaking, what is a “boom”?

-a device to which a microphone is often attached

What is the imaginary, invisible wall that separates the audience from the stage called?

-the fourth wall

Today’s movies run between two and three hours and are composed of about how many shots?

-2,000 to 3,000

“Das Neue Kino” translates from German to English as __________.

-the New German Cinema

When did the first African American movie stars appear?

-1950s

The reality of casting is that it depends on what?

-budget

Jack Lemmon, Harvey Keitel, and John Malkovich believe a character is built “________.”

-brick by brick

The technique for the actual joining together of two shots is often called _______ or ______.

 

-cutting; splicing

What is the general ratio of above-the-line to below-the-line costs to produce a movie today?

-30 to 70

What are the three filmmaking technologies?

-digital, video, film

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving Thalberg

What was a soundproof enclosure designed to keep the camera’s sound off of the microphone called?

-blimp

In terms of film history, the transition to sound began in what year?

-1927

When are most film sounds constructed?

-in postproduction

What kind of cut shows us the continuation of a character’s or object’s motion through space without actually showing us the entire action?

-match-on-action

A freeze-frame is a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing of the same frame, so that the image can be seen without movement for ____________.

-whatever length of time the filmmaker wants

Instead of writing comprehensive film history books, most authors focus their energies on what?

-specific moments, movements, phenomena

What are the most memorable words in The Jazz Singer (1927)?

-“Wait a minute. You ain’t heard nothin’ yet!”

Each directorial style requires something _________ from actors.

-different

In what decade did Jack Foley invent “Foley sounds”?

-1930s

When did the Hollywood studio system begin to decline?

-early 1950s

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed in what year?

-1927

Nondiegetic sound is offscreen, and it is assumed that it is ________ to the characters onscreen.

-inaudible

Sergei Eisenstein’s landmark film Battleship Potemkin (1925) is remembered primarily for __________.

-the “Odessa Steps”

Musical themes are most frequently associated with ______________.

-individual characters

Sound recorded with the Dolby system requires a theater equipped with what?

-Dolby playback system

What is the basic building block of editing?

-shot

In Jean-Luc Godard’s Breathless (1969), what kind of shot is used deliberately and effectively to create a syncopated rhythm?

-jump cut

You can most effectively analyze an editor’s contributions to a film by examining individual scenes and trying to understand how their parts ____________.

-fit together

Between 1931 and 1941, how many female producers were at MGM?

-0

The star system dominated the movie industry until the studio system did what?

-collapsed

What is the standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture?

-double-system recording

The group responsible for the sound in movies is known as the __________.

-the sound crew

The French avant-garde movement included artists and intellectuals who took their inspiration from previous French filmmakers as well as __________.

-Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud

Who plays the paramount role in the film production process?

-the director

If a filmmaker deliberately manipulates shots so that the transitions between them are not smooth, continuous, or coherent, what kind of editing is being employed?

-discontinuity editing

What kind of cut often matches basic shapes (circles, squares, triangles) and provides a strong sense of design and order?

-graphic match cut

Of the five Oscar-nominated films for Best Picture in 2007, how many were independent productions involving co-production deals?

-5

Of what four phases does sound production consist?

-design, recording, editing, mixing

The term camera obscura translates from Latin into English as _________.

-dark chamber

What does the microphone convert sound waves into?

-electrical signals

The spilt-screen has been in the mainstream of filmmaking since which film by Phillips Smalley and Lois Weber was released in 1913?

-Suspense

In the 1940s and 1950s, a typical Hollywood movie would run approximately ________ and contain about 1,000 shots.

-one to one-and-a-half hours

Who was the first female movie director?

-Alice Guy Blaché

What are the qualities of simultaneous sound?

-diegetic and onscreen

Traditionally, because audiences have shown little interest in films about women older than _____, the American film industry has produced very few of them.

-forty-five

The process of editing both pictures and sound usually lasts ______ than the shooting itself.

-longer

Which Free Cinema film was the first major motion picture about gay rights?

-Victim (1961)

One of the most important and influential aspects of Jean-Luc Godard’s films is ___________, which is central to the telling of his narratives.

-editing

When does an internal sound occur?

-when we hear the thoughts of a character onscreen

What was the ratio of unused to used footage in Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979)?

-100 to 1

Along with Vittorio De Sica’s Shoeshine (1946), what is considered the other neorealist masterpiece film?

-The Bicycle Thieves (1948)

Free Cinema films were expressions of the people who made them and were a manifestation of the move in Europe toward a new cinema of __________.

-social realism

Synchronized pictures/sound work prints of a day’s shooting are called the ________ .

-dailies

The French National Theatre is also known as the ________.

-Comédie-Française

What determines how the activities in the final phase of postproduction are accomplished?

-mode of production

Which film created by the painter Salvador Dali and filmmaker Luis Buñuel is acknowledged as one of the two masterpieces of surrealist cinema?

-An Andalusian Dog (1929)

Edward Porter and Thomas Edison’s The Great Train Robbery (1903) was the first movie using ___________, making it possible to depict parallel actions occurring simultaneously.

-crosscutting

What kind of transitional device, often including a change of place or time, slides across the screen and replaces the original shot?

-wipe

When used in continuity editing, what type of shot is typically framed over each character’s shoulder to preserve screen direction?

-a shot/ reverse shot

What is the exposure window in a movie camera called?

-aperture

The reality of casting is that it depends on what?

-budget

In Clint Eastwood’s Million Dollar Baby (2004), Hilary Swank’s performance shows that her character, Maggie, is learning to be _______.

-tough

Method acting requires actors to use a naturalistic style and to recall their own what?

-emotional experiences

With whom did the concept of photography begin?

-Aristotle

In reference to time, what does an ellipsis generally signify in a movie?

-omission

What is the primary difference between stage acting and screen acting?

-the ability to act intimately and come very close to the intended audience

The pacing and ________of a movie can be measured in either slow or fast terms.

-tempo

What are the four key types of movie actors?

-personality, against expectations, chameleon, nonprofessional

Below-the-line costs consist of what items?

-production, postproduction, crew

From where does external sound originate?

-from a source within the world of the film that can be heard by the characters

Orson Welles’s complex sound design for Citizen Kane (1941) is a kind of ________ that functions much like the photography in the film.

-deep-focus sound

In Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958), the eyeline match cut, which is also a graphic match cut, establishes continuity between Madeleine Elster’s bouquet and which other object?

-Carlotta’s bun

What was the most popular film of Hollywood’s “golden age”?

-Gone with the Wind (1939)

Movies involve a constant tug of war between artistic vision and what?

-profitability

German expressionism gave birth to what film genre?

-horror films

What Konstantin Stanislavsky was to naturalistic acting, German playwright Bertolt Brecht was to _________ performance.

-nonnaturalistic

What do filmmakers call the interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that show an event that has happened earlier in the story?

-flashback

The documentary style of the Free Cinema and the British New Cinema was a catalyst for a revived spirit of what in filmmaking?

-narrative

The early independent production system was also known as what?

-package-unit system

What two types of editing advantages did D. W. Griffith create in Birth of a Nation (1915) by rarely carrying over the action from shot to shot, but instead creating a series of details from different viewpoints?

-a sense of depth in the narrative, and the ability to guide the viewer’s reactions

What are the three phases of the filmmaking process?

-preproduction, production, postproduction

Black-and-white film remained the industry standard until early in what decade?

-1950s

If a director uses a reverse-angle shot, how is the 180-degree rule treated?

-broken

In one sense, movies are simply a natural progression in the history of what?

-photography

In 1802, who made the first recorded attempt to produce photographs?

-Thomas Wedgwood

______ are actors that bear strong physical resemblance to stars and substitute for them during setup times, light readings, etc.

-Stand-ins

A freeze-frame is a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing of the same frame, so that the image can be seen without movement for ____________.

-whatever length of time the filmmaker wants

During the 1930s under the producer-unit system, what was MGM’s annual output of films?

-50

The silent era in Hollywood lasted from when to when?

-1908–1927

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed in what year?

-1937

Approximately how many movies did Hollywood produce between 1927 and 1941?

-10,000

By teaching you how to look at movies in a critically aware way, film history provides you with the _________ and________  to understand and evaluate both yesterday’s and today’s movies.

-perspective; context

What transitional device establishes a thematic connection between in the parts of John Ford’s My Darling Clementine (1946)?

-dissolve

What does the microphone convert sound waves into?

-electrical signals

What are the qualities of simultaneous sound?

-diegetic and onscreen

The classes of Hollywood golden age actors are which of the following?

-supporting players, stock players, featured players, movie stars

What 1986 John Woo film is considered a classic example of Hong Kong Cinema?

-A Better Tomorrow (1986)

What is a character’s interior monologue in a film?

-when we can hear the thoughts of a character who is not moving his or her lips

In Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund’s City of God (2002), the “Chasing the Chicken” scene is composed of which two parts?

-the preparation and the chase

In what year did Walt Disney make his first cartoon movie?

-1922

Laurence Olivier defined acting as “________________.”

-convincing lying

Which type of cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action?

-jump cut

What percentage of Hollywood films is digitally edited?

-100

What are the shots that the director previews every day after shooting called?

-dailies

The term camera obscura translates from Latin into English as _________.

-dark chamber

Laurence Olivier once said that acting is “______________.”

-the art of persuasion

For how many categories does the Academy award “best in” Oscars?

-24

What are the three filmmaking technologies?

-digital, video, film

In addition to establishing the shot as the basic structural unit of a movie, Edwin S. Porter also pioneered what?

-continuity editing

Director Sidney Lumet said that “the ________ of acting is one in which the actor’s thoughts and feelings are instantly communicated to the audience.”

-While short-lived, the Japanese New Wave influenced the style and content of what other movement?

-New American Cinema

For years, improvisation has played a(n) _________role in actors’ training, even though it is anathema to the preprogrammed studio system.

-major

Which of the following best characterizes the invisibility principle?

-a seamless form and a standardized studio production

Dziga Vertov is best known today for what 1929 film?

-The Man with the Movie Camera (1929)

Who began to mass-produce a paper film coated with a gelatin emulsion in 1889?

-George Eastman

In Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958), the eyeline match cut, which is also a graphic match cut, establishes continuity between Madeleine Elster’s bouquet and which other object?

-Carlotta’s bun

Who is responsible for the overall process of editing for the sound crew?

-the editor

One definition of great acting is that it should look ___________.

-effortless

To maintain consistent screen direction, filmmakers must adhere to what cinematic convention?

-the 180-degree rule

What director encouraged actors to create characters to serve the narrative?

-John Ford

Georges Méliès is credited with inventing what movie procedure?

-editing

By 1915, over 15,000 workers were employed in Hollywood, composing what percentage of the American film industry?

-60

Between 1933 and 1938, Orson Welles established himself as one of the most creative innovators in _________.

-radio

Footage that will not be used is called what?

-outtakes

What is the current dominant film technology?

-film

Approximately how many movies did Hollywood produce between 1927 and 1941?

-10,000

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin

In 1895 the Lumière brothers made a one-minute film that they called an actualité, but that today would be known as a what?

-documentary

Black-and-white film remained the industry standard until early in what decade?

-1950s

Who was the most distinguished director of the silent era?

-D. W. Griffith

In John Ford’s The Searchers (1956), the master shot establishes which two motifs?

-the vastness of the desert and the intimacy of the pioneer home

Who was the first female movie director?

-Alice Guy Blaché

The __________ of shots within a scene can cause us to have a fairly complex sense of the overall space, even if no shot discloses more than a fraction of that space to us at a time.

-juxtaposition

Of what does the first stage of film production, preproduction, consist?

-planning and preparation

In terms of film history, the transition to sound began in what year?

-1927

Synchronized pictures/sound work prints of a day’s shooting are called the ________ .

-dailies

What is the standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture?

-double-system recording

What are the most memorable words in The Jazz Singer (1927)?

-“Wait a minute. You ain’t heard nothin’ yet!”

What is the average total cost of a feature film today?

-100 million dollars

A freeze-frame is a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing of the same frame, so that the image can be seen without movement for ____________.

-whatever length of time the filmmaker wants

When did the first African American movie stars appear?

-1950s

In the 1940s and 1950s, a typical Hollywood movie would run approximately ________ and contain about 1,000 shots.

-one to one-and-a-half hours

Which of the following is not a traditional approach used to study film history?

-marketing

Pitch is defined by the frequency (or speed) by which it is produced and is measured using what time frame?

-per second

John Wayne made around ___________ movies in his 46-year career.

-180

In Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), what object is used in a graphic match cut to a spaceship?

-a bone

What do we call a transitional device in which one shot is gradually superimposed over another while the original shot fades out?

-dissolve

The pitch of a sound can be described as _________ or _________.

-high; low

Below-the-line costs consist of what items?

-production, postproduction, crew

Cross cutting refers to editing that cuts between two or more lines of action usually occurring ______________.

-at the same time and place

The master shot is also sometimes used as a cover shot to what ends?

-to avoid reshooting

The individual space that each type of sound occupies is called a ________.

-track

Which film created by the painter Salvador Dali and filmmaker Luis Buñuel is acknowledged as one of the two masterpieces of surrealist cinema?

-An Andalusian Dog (1929)

What was the most notable change in the New American Cinema?

-predominance of sex and violence

Which Free Cinema film was the first major motion picture about gay rights?

-Victim (1961)

Nondiegetic sound is offscreen, and it is assumed that it is ________ to the characters onscreen.

-inaudible

What was the amount of exposed hours of film for every hour actually used in Francis Ford Coppola’s landmark film Apocalypse Now (1979)?

-115

With what unit of measurement is a film’s format measured?

-millimeters

Who was the top actress during the studio era?

-Bette Davis

Stock players, who formed the largest talent pool, received between about how much money per week?

-$50–$350

When does an internal sound occur?

-when we hear the thoughts of a character onscreen

Today’s movies run between two and three hours and are composed of about how many shots?

-2,000 to 3,000

Lillian Gish’s performance in what movie was the first great film performance by an actor?

-Broken Blossoms (1919)

Film production is complicated by the standard, cost-effective practice of what?

-shooting out of chronological order

What percentage of Hollywood films is digitally edited?

-100

At what speed, in frames per second (fps), is a strip of exposed frames projected?

-16 fps for silent, 24 fps for sound

By teaching you how to look at movies in a critically aware way, film history provides you with the _________ and________  to understand and evaluate both yesterday’s and today’s movies.

-perspective; context

The commentary that is spoken by onscreen or offscreen voices and is frequently used in narrative films is called what?

-narration

In reference to time, what does an ellipsis generally signify in a movie?

-omission

The ideal result of sound mixing achieves a sound that is both _________ and ________.

-clean; clear

After the stars who play major roles in movies, second in the hierarchy are actors who play what types of roles?

-minor roles

In what decade did Jack Foley invent “Foley sounds”?

-1930s

________can mean extemporizing—that is, delivering lines based only loosely on the written script or without the preparation that comes with studying a script before rehearsing it.

-Improvisation

In the opening sequence of Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979), the sound design reflects Captain Benjamin L. Willard’s (Martin Sheen) what?

-state of mind

What determines how the activities in the final phase of postproduction are accomplished?

-mode of production

Above-the-line costs consist of what items?

-preproduction, producer, director, cast, screenwriter, literary property

What was the greatest potential threat to profits during Hollywood’s golden age?

-censorship

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving Thalberg

The __________ of shots within a scene can cause us to have a fairly complex sense of the overall space, even if no shot discloses more than a fraction of that space to us at a time.

-Juxtaposition

The motion picture is a major part of the _________ economy.

-Global

A _______ of sounds is a mix that ideally includes multiple sources of diverse quality, levels, and placement, and usually moves as rapidly as a montage of images

-montage

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin

________ often results from the juxtaposition of music and image, because the associations aroused by a piece of music greatly affect our interpretation of the scene.

-Irony

What was the first significant documentary film?

-Nanook of the North (1922

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving

What was the largest studio in Hollywood during the golden age?

-MGM

Film dialogue is a function of what?

-Plot

From where does diegetic sound originate?

-from a source within the world of the film

What quickly replaced the phenomenon of the “new” Hollywood?

-independent filmmaking

What is the sound that emanates from the background of the setting being filmed called?

-Ambient

What kind of editing is the editing of subjective shots that show a scene exactly the way the character sees it

-point-of-view editing

What best defines resolution in regard to movie film stock, processing, and lenses?

-the ability to provide fine detail

In what year did the first kinetoscope parlor open in New York City?

-1894

What are the most important artifacts used by film historians?

-movies themselves

How do you determine the number of people required on a particular shot?

-by the needs of the shot

The pacing and ________of a movie can be measured in either slow or fast terms.

-Tempo

John Wayne made around ___________ movies in his 46-year career.

-180

Georges Méliès is credited with inventing what movie procedure?

-Editing

During preproduction, what do sound designers encourage directors and other collaborators to do during reproduction

-consider the significance of what the characters hear

What is the process of combining different sound recordings, or tracks, onto one composite sound track synchronous

-Mixing

Image and sound are _________.

-co-expressible

Lev Kuleshov discovered that two shots __________ any actual relationship to one another if the first shot is an action followed by another shot that is a reaction.

-need not have

The perceptual qualities of sound are made up of which of the following sets of characteristics?

-pitch, loudness, quality

Today’s sound is ______________to the image.

-not subordinate

The Soviet-montage movement is one of the two high points of silent film experimentation along with what other move

-German expressionism

A master shot is sometimes called by what other name?

-establishing shot

Sound design combines the crafts of editing and mixing, involving matters both _________________.

-theoretical and practical

The aesthetic approach to film history is also known as what?

-masterpiece approach

Over what aspect of filmmaking do directors have the least precise control?

-Acting

In Jean-Luc Godard’s Breathless (1969), what kind of shot is used deliberately and effectively to create a syncopated rhythm?

-jump cut

Method acting requires actors to use a naturalistic style and to recall their own what?

-emotional experiences

Which type of cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action?

-jump cut

Carl Theodor Dreyer’s formalist masterpiece The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928) is distinguished from most French avant-garde films by__________.

-Narrative

Black-and-white film remained the industry standard until early in what decade?

-1950s

Which of the following is not a traditional approach used to study film history?

-Marketing

The chameleon actor is named for the ___________that can make quick, frequent changes in response to the environment?

-Lizard

The technique for the actual joining together of two shots is often called _______ or ______.

-cutting; splicing

What kind of cut shows us the continuation of a character’s or object’s motion through space without actually showing us the entire action?

-match-on-action

Scenes that may be hazardous or require physical or athletic prowess often call for the use of a _____________

-stunt-person

In addition to establishing the shot as the basic structural unit of a movie, Edwin S. Porter also pioneered what?

-continuity editing

What is the basic building block of editing?

-Shot

Traditionally, because audiences have shown little interest in films about women older than _____, the American film industry has produced very few of them.

-forty-five

If actors perform skillfully, and we believe and accept their characters within the context of the story, what should we call such portrayals?

-Naturalistic

The artists and technicians who record, edit, and mix the component sounds create what?

-the sound track

What two types of editing advantages did D. W. Griffith create in Birth of a Nation (1915) by rarely carrying over the action from shot to shot, but instead creating a series of details from different viewpoints?

-a sense of depth in the narrative, and the ability to guide the viewer’s reactions

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed in what year?

-1927

What are four suggested areas to consider when analyzing any actor’s performance?

-appropriateness, emotionality, expressive coherence, unity

What do we call a transitional device in which one shot is gradually superimposed over another while the original shot fades out?

-Dissolve

What does the microphone convert sound waves into?

-electrical signals

Movies were invented in the first part of which decade?

-1890s

What is the exposure window in a movie camera called?

-Aperture

What kind of editing refers to the editing of two or more actions taking place at the same time but creating a single scene rather than two distinct actions?

-Intercutting

When did strong reactions against the stereotyping of African Americans in movies begin?

-1920s

While short-lived, the Japanese New Wave influenced the style and content of what other movement?

-New American Cinema

The silent era in Hollywood lasted from when to when?

-1908–1927

Film production is complicated by the standard, cost-effective practice of what?

-shooting out of chronological order

Which film professionals tend to have the least defined job descriptions?

-Producers

Who is responsible for the overall process of editing for the sound crew?

-the editor

Stock players, who formed the largest talent pool, received between about how much money per week?

-$50–$350

After the stars who play major roles in movies, second in the hierarchy are actors who play what types of roles?

-minor roles

Musical themes are most frequently associated with ______________.

-individual characters

Along with Vittorio De Sica’s Shoeshine (1946), what is considered the other neorealist masterpiece film?

-The Bicycle Thieves (1948)

Joan Crawford said that a movie actor paints with the ______ kind of brush.

-tiniest

What is the literal translation of the French word montage in English?

-editing

The early independent production system was also known as what?

-package-unit system

Who guides the entire process of making a movie from its initial planning to its release?

-the producer

The extreme Japanese film movement called Nubero Bagu spanned which decades?

-1950s–1970s

How did Walt Disney Studios first release its movies?

-through Buena Vista Productions

What was the ratio of unused to used footage in Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979)?

-100 to 1

What person sets and maintains the defining quality of the film that produces the total visual impact of its image, look, and feel?

-the director

Nondiegetic sound is offscreen, and it is assumed that it is ________ to the characters onscreen.

-inaudible

In terms of film history, the transition to sound began in what year?

-1927

Which of the following is not a traditional approach used to study film history?

-marketing

What kind of sound carries the sound from a first shot over to the next before the sound of the second shot begins?

-overlapping sound

The chameleon actor is named for the ___________that can make quick, frequent changes in response to the environment.

-lizard

Laurence Olivier once said that acting is “______________.”

-the art of persuasion

Synchronized pictures/sound work prints of a day’s shooting are called the ________ .

-dailies

What is the sound that emanates from the background of the setting being filmed called?

-ambient

What two types of editing advantages did D. W. Griffith create in Birth of a Nation (1915) by rarely carrying over the action from shot to shot, but instead creating a series of details from different viewpoints?

-a sense of depth in the narrative, and the ability to guide the viewer’s reactions

Scenes that may be hazardous or require physical or athletic prowess often call for the use of a _____________ in place of a movie star.

-stunt-person

When a sound or sound effect signals an action and is used repeatedly, it plays on our what?

-expectations

Each of the characters in Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane (1941) has a distinctive speaking voice that is a major part of his or her _________.

-characterization

In Lawrence of Arabia (1962), director David Lean created what legendary match cut?

-a cut from a match flame to the sun

Sound recorded with the Dolby system requires a theater equipped with what?

-Dolby playback system

What kind of sound emanates from a source that we cannot see onscreen?

-offscreen

The art of the movies has been changed by developments in technology and cinematic conventions, and also by what?

-changes in the production process

On May 4, 1880, Eadweard Muybridge used a magic lantern and a zoopraxiscope to give a public demonstration of photographic images set in motion, documenting what action?

-a horse running

In the 1940s and 1950s, a typical Hollywood movie would run approximately ________ and contain about 1,000 shots.

-one to one-and-a-half hours

From where does nondiegetic sound originate?

-from a source outside the world of the film

When did the Hollywood studio system begin to decline?

-early 1950s

What Konstantin Stanislavsky was to naturalistic acting, German playwright Bertolt Brecht was to _________ performance.

-nonnaturalistic

Throughout their work, film editors must collaborate with the director and be resilient enough to withstand which typical scenario?

-producer’s interference

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed in what year?

-1927

As opposed to stage actors, movie actors get little in the way of _________.

-rehearsal

Which film professionals tend to have the least defined job descriptions?

-producers

What kind of photography records the phases of an action?

-series photography

What was a soundproof enclosure designed to keep the camera’s sound off of the microphone called?

-blimp

What did the designation as an “A” picture mean?

-the top of a double bill

Of the five Oscar-nominated films for Best Picture in 2007, how many were independent productions involving co-production deals?

-5

The motion picture is a major part of the _________ economy.

-global

Who plays the paramount role in the film production process?

-the director

What do we call a transitional device in which one shot is gradually superimposed over another while the original shot fades out?

-dissolve

What kind of cut often matches basic shapes (circles, squares, triangles) and provides a strong sense of design and order?

-graphic match cut

Of what four phases does sound production consist?

-design, recording, editing, mixing

The inciting incident of ___________is when the protagonist’s mother signs the contract that determines her son’s future.

-Citizen Kane(1941)

Black-and-white film remained the industry standard until early in what decade?

-1950s

What do filmmakers call the interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that show an event that has happened earlier in the story?

-flashback

What are the three stages of bringing a film to the screen?

-shooting, processing, projecting

By teaching you how to look at movies in a critically aware way, film history provides you with the _________ and________  to understand and evaluate both yesterday’s and today’s movies.

-perspective; context

What do the transitional fade-in and fade-out devices allow a scene to do?

-open or close slowly

The pitch of a sound can be described as _________ or _________.

-high; low

The process of editing both pictures and sound usually lasts ______ than the shooting itself.

-longer

To maintain consistent screen direction, filmmakers must adhere to what cinematic convention?

-the 180-degree rule

What is the basic building block of editing?

-shot

To which socioeconomic group did the early silent films appeal?

-all classes

With careful interplay between sound and silence, a filmmaker can produce a new _________ for the film.

-rhythm

Which characteristics best describe fidelity in terms of sound?

-its faithfulness or unfaithfulness to its source

What is the component most people use to assess a movie?

-acting

What are the three phases of the filmmaking process?

-preproduction, production, postproduction

What are the most memorable words in The Jazz Singer (1927)?

-“Wait a minute. You ain’t heard nothin’ yet!”

Method acting was based on the theory and practice of which famous acting persona?

-Konstantin Stanislavsky

Traditionally, because audiences have shown little interest in films about women older than _____, the American film industry has produced very few of them.

-forty-five

Which film created by Germaine Dulac in 1928 is acknowledged as one of the two masterpieces of surrealist cinema?

-The Seashell and the Clergyman(1928)

Sound can define sections of the screen, which does what?

-guides our attention and influences our interpretation

One of the most important and influential aspects of Jean-Luc Godard’s films is ___________, which is central to the telling of his narratives.

-editing

What is the basic building block of editing?

-shot

In terms of film history, the transition to sound began in what year?

-1927

By teaching you how to look at movies in a critically aware way, film history provides you with the _________ and________  to understand and evaluate both yesterday’s and today’s movies.

-perspective; context

As opposed to stage actors, movie actors get little in the way of _________.

-rehearsal

What kind of sound emanates from a source that we can see on the screen?

-onscreen

Who is credited with launching the neorealism movement?

-Cesare Zavattini

Of what does the first stage of film production, preproduction, consist?

-planning and preparation

The Soviet-montage movement is one of the two high points of silent film experimentation along with what other movement?

-German expressionism

Carl Theodor Dreyer’s formalist masterpiece The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928) is distinguished from most French avant-garde films by__________.

-narrative

Who created the first tangible drawings of a camera?

-Leonardo da Vinci

The motion picture is a major part of the _________ economy.

-global

If a filmmaker deliberately manipulates shots so that the transitions between them are not smooth, continuous, or coherent, what kind of editing is being employed?

-discontinuity editing

Two of the first films of the French New Wave style are ______ and ________.

-Breathless (1960); The 400 Blows (1959)

The classical Hollywood style is fundamentally built on what principle?

-invisibility

Essentially, moviemaking is what kind of activity?

-collaborative

The pacing and ________of a movie can be measured in either slow or fast terms.

-tempo

In the opening sequence of Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979), the sound design reflects Captain Benjamin L. Willard’s (Martin Sheen) what?

-state of mind

What is the recording of a sound not made during synchronous shooting of the picture called?

-wild recording

What is the imaginary, invisible wall that separates the audience from the stage called?

-the fourth wall

In one sense, movies are simply a natural progression in the history of what?

-photography

What was the first movie studio called?

-Black Maria

The reality of casting is that it depends on what?

-budget

Which type of cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action?

-jump cut

Lev Kuleshov discovered that two shots __________ any actual relationship to one another if the first shot is an action followed by another shot that is a reaction.

-need not have

What do we call the process by which the editor combines and coordinates individual shots into a cinematic whole?

-editing

Forty-six years after the invention of motion pictures, what film revolutionized the medium?

-Citizen Kane (1941)

Sergei Eisenstein’s landmark film Battleship Potemkin (1925) is remembered primarily for __________.

-the “Odessa Steps” montage sequence

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin

In King Vidor’s Stella Dallas (1937), Barbara Stanwyck met the challenge of balancing which two of the title character’s qualities?

-nonnaturalistic and naturalistic

What kind of cut shows us the continuation of a character’s or object’s motion through space without actually showing us the entire action?

-match-on-action

What transitional device establishes a thematic connection between in the parts of John Ford’s My Darling Clementine (1946)?

-dissolve

What do filmmakers call the interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that show an event that has happened earlier in the story?

-flashback

The classes of Hollywood golden age actors are which of the following?

-supporting players, stock players, featured players, movie stars

Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds (1963) is one of the few movies that does not have this particular characteristic: __________.

-background music

Movies were invented in the first part of which decade?

-1890s

For years, improvisation has played a(n) _________role in actors’ training, even though it is anathema to the preprogrammed studio system.

-major

What Taiwanese director is credited with directing Sense and Sensibility (1995), The Ice Storm (1997), Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), and Brokeback Mountain (2005)?

-Ang Lee

Who was the most distinguished director of the silent era?

-D. W. Griffith

The technique for the actual joining together of two shots is often called _______ or ______.

-cutting; splicing

What does the microphone convert sound waves into?

-electrical signals

John Ford’s The Searchers (1956) opens with a master shot of which American landmark?

-Monument Valley

When a sound or sound effect signals an action and is used repeatedly, it plays on our what?

-expectations

Loudness, or the amplitude of a sound, is measured by the degree of motion within what?

-a sound wave

The silent era in Hollywood lasted from when to when?

-1908–1927

What were the three most successful silent film types?

-epics, melodramas, comedies

What kind of cut joins one person’s point of view looking offscreen with another’s that is the object of that gaze?

-eyeline match cut

Actors must understand the filmmaking process because every aspect of it can affect performance and the actors’ contribution to the creation of _______ in a film.

-meaning

What expressive use of patterns using a dynamic form of editing did Sergei Eisenstein pioneer, as demonstrated in the “Odessa Steps” sequence of Battleship Potemkin (1925)?

-montage

In what decade did Jack Foley invent “Foley sounds”?

-1930s

Scenes that may be hazardous or require physical or athletic prowess often call for the use of a _____________ in place of a movie star.

-stunt-person

Which of the following best characterizes the invisibility principle?

-a seamless form and a standardized studio production

The art of the movies has been changed by developments in technology and cinematic conventions, and also by what?

-changes in the production process

What kind of photography records the phases of an action?

-series photography

August and Louis Lumière are credited with inventing what projector?

-cinematograph

In Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund’s City of God (2002), the shots of Li’l Ze are heavily fragmented and made with a handheld camera emphasizing his what?

-instability

Above-the-line costs consist of what items?

-preproduction, producer, director, cast, screenwriter, literary property

For many movie actors, what is the real key to their careers?

-persona

Which film professionals tend to have the least defined job descriptions?

-producers

In Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund’s City of God (2002), the “Chasing the Chicken” scene is composed of which two parts?

-the preparation and the chase

________can mean extemporizing—that is, delivering lines based only loosely on the written script or without the preparation that comes with studying a script before rehearsing it.

-Improvisation

What milestone film did more than any other to define the New American Cinema?

-Stranger Than Paradise (1984)

Historians who use an aesthetic approach are primarily interested in movies that not only are works of art but also are widely acknowledged as what?

-masterpieces

With what unit of measurement is a film’s format measured?

-millimeters

The commentary that is spoken by onscreen or offscreen voices and is frequently used in narrative films is called what?

-narration

The inciting incident of ___________is when the protagonist’s mother signs the contract that determines her son’s future.

-Citizen Kane (1941)

Moviemaking is, above all, ______________ enterprise.

-a moneymaking

Who said, “If you can think it, you can make the audience know it. . . . On stage it’s mannerisms.  On the screen, your range is shown in your eyes”?

-Frank Capra

Who is responsible for the overall process of editing for the sound crew?

-the editor

What is the primary difference between stage acting and screen acting?

-the ability to act intimately and come very close to the intended audience

Throughout their work, film editors must collaborate with the director and be resilient enough to withstand which typical scenario?

-producer’s interference

What is a character’s interior monologue in a film?

-when we can hear the thoughts of a character who is not moving his or her lips

What milestone film did more than any other to define the New American Cinema?

-Stranger Than Paradise (1984)

If a director uses a reverse-angle shot, how is the 180-degree rule treated?

-Broken

What kind of editing is the cutting together of two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously?

-parallel editing

Who guides the entire process of making a movie from its initial planning to its release

-the producer

What kind of sound carries the sound from a first shot over to the next before the sound of the second shot begins?

-overlapping sound

What does the word “photography” mean literally?

-writing with light

What do we call casting particular types of roles because of an actor’s looks or type?

-type casting

What Konstantin Stanislavsky was to naturalistic acting, German playwright Bertolt Brecht was to _________ performance.

-Nonnaturalistic

What type of sound is the only one typically recorded during production?

-Dialogue

The ____________ was the first motion-picture camera.

-Kinetograph

Who was the top actress during the studio era?

-Bette Davis

Which type of cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action?

-jump cut

What are four suggested areas to consider when analyzing any actor’s performance?

-appropriateness, emotionality, expressive coherence, unity

When did strong reactions against the stereotyping of African Americans in movies begin?

-1920s

What are the four traditional approaches to studying film history?

-aesthetic, technological, economic, social

Joan Crawford said that a movie actor paints with the ______ kind of brush.

-Tiniest

In digital filmmaking, the sound track basically consists of a _________ placed somewhere on the digital recording medium

-digital code

Between 1931 and 1941, how many female producers were at MGM?

-5

In which decade did German expressionism flourish?

-1920s

The pitch of a sound can be described as _________ or _________.

-high; low

What are the four key types of movie actors?

-personality, against expectations, chameleon, nonprofessional

What is the recording of a sound not made during synchronous shooting of the picture called?

-wild recording

The ideal result of sound mixing achieves a sound that is both _________ and ________.

-clean; clear

The silent era in Hollywood lasted from when to when?

-1908–1927

The French New Wave inspired the idea of the movie director as the what?

-Auteur

Sound design combines the crafts of editing and mixing, involving matters both _________________.

-theoretical and practical

Of what does the first stage of film production, preproduction, consist?

-planning and preparation

When does nonsimultaneous sound occur?

-when a character has a mental flashback

In terms of film history, the transition to sound began in what year?

-1927

What is the basic building block of editing?

-Shot

What was the most popular film of Hollywood’s “golden age”?

-Gone with the Wind (1939)

Who was the first to use the term photograph?

-John Herschel

The Motion Picture Production Code (MPPC) and the Picture Code Administration (PCA) issued seals of approval for motion pictures from 1930 until what year?

-1968

What kind of photography records the phases of an action?

-series photography

One of the most important and influential aspects of Jean-Luc Godard’s films is ___________, which is central to the telling of his narratives.

-Editing

The art of movies is _________ its business, methods, filmmaking technologies, and production systems.

-inseparable from

Of the five Oscar-nominated films for Best Picture in 2007, how many were independent productions involving co-production deals

-5

What best defines resolution in regard to movie film stock, processing, and lenses?

-the ability to provide fine detail

Movies involve a constant tug of war between artistic vision and what?

-Profitability

Above-the-line costs consist of what items?

-preproduction, producer, director, cast, screenwriter, literary property

What was the most profitable movie studio in 1940, earning more than 10 million dollars in profit?

-Selznick International Pictures

In what year was the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) established?

-1933

What is a major factor in putting shots together, thus helping to create the performance?

-Editing

In Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund’s City of God (2002), the “Chasing the Chicken” scene is composed of which two parts?

-the preparation and the chase

What do we call the process by which the editor combines and coordinates individual shots into a cinematic whole?

-Editing

What is the primary reason more movie theatres have not converted to digital technology?

-too expensive to convert

In reference to time, what does an ellipsis generally signify in a movie?

-Omission

What was the first significant documentary film?

-Nanook of the North (1922)

When was Hollywood’s “golden age”?

-1927–1947

Walter Murch’s sound design for the “Helicopter Attack Scene” in Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) contains a mix of over how many individual sound tracks

-140

The process of editing both pictures and sound usually lasts ______ than the shooting itself.

-Longer

What do filmmakers call the interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that shows images from the plot’s future?

-flash forward

The seven-year option contract essentially turned actors into____________.

-Chattel

What kind of editing refers to the editing of two or more actions taking place at the same time but creating a single scene rather than two distinct actions?

-intercutting

What is the imaginary, invisible wall that separates the audience from the stage called?

-the fourth wall

The documentary style of the Free Cinema and the British New Cinema was a catalyst for a revived spirit of what in filmmaking?

-Narrative

Today’s movies run between two and three hours and are composed of about how many shots?

-2,000 to 3,000

Approximately how many movies did Hollywood produce between 1927 and 1941?

-10,000

What are the names of the two  actors unions?

-Screen Actors Guild, American Federation of Television and Radio Artists

Who was the central producer at MGM in the 1920s and 1930s?

-Irving Thalberg

What do you call movie music that is selected or composed specifically to support the narrative?

-dramatically motivated

What was the first significant documentary film?

-Nanook of the North (1922)

What is the recording of a sound not made during synchronous shooting of the picture called?

-wild recording

What kind of cut often matches basic shapes (circles, squares, triangles) and provides a strong sense of design and order?

-graphic match cut

Moviemaking is, above all, ______________ enterprise

-a moneymaking

For how many categories does the Academy award “best in” Oscars?

-24

If actors perform skillfully, and we believe and accept their characters within the context of the story, what should we call such portrayals?

-Naturalistic

Film stock is a ___________ thing, digital is a ____________.

-physical; virtual representation

The myriad changes brought on by New American Cinema have transformed the structure of _________.

-the American film industry

A _______ of sounds is a mix that ideally includes multiple sources of diverse quality, levels, and placement, and usually moves as rapidly as a montage of images.

-Montage

In King Vidor’s Stella Dallas (1937), Barbara Stanwyck met the challenge of balancing which two of the title character’s qualities?

-nonnaturalistic and naturalistic

With whom did the concept of photography begin?

-Aristotle

When was Hollywood’s “golden age”?

-1927–1947

Bertolt Brecht wanted every aspect of a theatrical production to limit the audience’s identification with characters and events, thereby creating a psychological distance between them known as the ____________.

-alienation effect

What is the term for a director that inspires such confidence that he or she can actively shape an actor’s performance?

-actors’ director

Forty-six years after the invention of motion pictures, what film revolutionized the medium?

-Citizen Kane (1941)

From where does nondiegetic sound originate?

-from a source outside the world of the film

With what unit of measurement is a film’s format measured?

-Millimeters

Who said, “If you can think it, you can make the audience know it. . . . On stage it’s mannerisms.  On the screen, your range is shown in your eyes”?

-Frank Capra

Who is known as the father of the New Wave?

-Andre Bazin

In what year was the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) established?

-1933

Orson Welles’s complex sound design for Citizen Kane (1941) is a kind of ________ that functions much like the photography in the film.

-deep-focus sound

What was the title of the famous 1902 special effects movie by Georges Méliès?

-A Trip to the Moon (1902)

During preproduction, what do sound designers encourage directors and other collaborators to do during reproduction?

-consider the significance of what the characters hear

August and Louis Lumière are credited with inventing what projector?

-The quality of a sound enables the listener to distinguish between sounds that have the same ___________ and ____________.

-pitch; loudness

What kind of sound emanates from a source that we can see on the screen?

-Onscreen

To which socioeconomic group did the early silent films appeal?

-all classes

Whether sudden, unexpected, or seemingly unnatural, which editing or camera techniques are frequently used to provide an instant and sometimes comic resolution to a situation?

-Ellipses

The individual space that each type of sound occupies is called a ________.

-Track

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed in what year?

-1927

Sergei Eisenstein’s landmark film Battleship Potemkin (1925) is remembered primarily for __________.

-the “Odessa Steps” montage sequence

Who created the first tangible drawings of a camera?

-Leonardo da Vinci

What director encouraged actors to create characters to serve the narrative?-

-John Ford

When a sound or sound effect signals an action and is used repeatedly, it plays on our what?

-Expectations

What Taiwanese director is credited with directing Sense and Sensibility (1995), The Ice Storm (1997), Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), and Brokeback Mountain (2005)?

-Ang Lee

Traditionally, because audiences have shown little interest in films about women older than _____, the American film industry has produced very few of them.

-forty-five

Postproduction consists of what three phases?

-editing, the final print, marketing

The editing of most contemporary narrative movies is made to be as _________ as possible.

-Inconspicuous

What is the most familiar kind of movie sound?

-diegetic, onscreen sound synchronous with the image

If a filmmaker deliberately manipulates shots so that the transitions between them are not smooth, continuous, or coherent, what kind of editing is being employed?

-discontinuity editing

A freeze-frame is a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing of the same frame, so that the image can be seen without movement for ____________.

-whatever length of time the filmmaker wants

John Ford’s The Searchers (1956) opens with a master shot of which American landmark?

-Monument Valley

In terms of film history, the transition to sound began in what year?

-1927

When was photography first developed?

-1800s–1840s

Dziga Vertov is best known today for what 1929 film?

-The Man with the Movie Camera (1929)

In Lawrence of Arabia (1962), director David Lean created what legendary match cut?

-a cut from a match flame to the sun

Walter Murch’s sound design for the “Helicopter Attack Scene” in Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) contains a mix of over how many individual sound tracks?

-140

Which type of cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action?

-jump cut

Throughout their work, film editors must collaborate with the director and be resilient enough to withstand which typical scenario?

-producer’s interference

Jack Lemmon, Harvey Keitel, and John Malkovich believe a character is built “________.”

-brick by brick

For many movie actors, what is the real key to their careers?

-Persona

Digital technology creates images through what process?

-processing numbered binary pixels

Laurence Olivier once said that acting is “______________.”

-the art of persuasion

The perceptual qualities of sound are made up of which of the following sets of characteristics?

-pitch, loudness, quality

The commentary that is spoken by onscreen or offscreen voices and is frequently used in narrative films is called what?

-Narration

Director Sidney Lumet said that “the ________ of acting is one in which the actor’s thoughts and feelings are instantly communicated to the audience.”

-Talent

The French National Theatre is also known as the ________.

-Comédie-Française

What do we call a transitional device in which one shot is gradually superimposed over another while the original shot fades out?

-Dissolve

Movies were invented in the first part of which decade?

-1890s

Today’s movies run between two and three hours and are composed of about how many shots?

-2,000 to 3,000

The editor is responsible for managing the following aspects of the final film:

-spatial relationships and temporal relationships between shots, overall rhythm of the film

In many major film productions, when does an editor’s responsibility as a collaborator begin?

-during preproduction and production

What were the five major Hollywood studios of the 1930s?

-Paramount, MGM, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, RKO

One of the most powerful effects of film editing is the creation of _______ in the mind of the viewer?

-space

What percentage of the movie industry’s gross income do the major studios account for today?

-80

“Tex” Cobb’s motorcycle jump in Joel and Ethan Coen’s Raising Arizona (1987) is a simple example of which cinematic device used for comic effect? 

-the Kuleshov effect

To date, about what percentage of movies released in Hollywood has been digital (excluding animated features)?

-1

What director tended to place mise-en-scène before narrative, and narrative before acting?

-Alfred Hitchcock